Resource

RESEARCH SAYS THAT TEACHER DIVERSITY BENEFITS ALL STUDENTS, REGARDLESS OF RACE OR ETHNICITY. HOWEVER, WHILE THE MAJORITY OF STUDENTS IN THE U.S. ARE OF COLOR, ONLY ABOUT 20% OF TEACHERS ARE OF COLOR.
Increasing the racial and cultural diversity of the teacher workforce takes a statewide commitment to collecting and analyzing educator workforce data and leading targeted, data-informed efforts to develop policies that recruit, support, and retain a high-quality and diverse educator workforce. This brief is designed to support these efforts by providing data analyses and a landscape of policies and practices in each state for advocates, educators, and policymakers leading this work at the state level. See how North Carolina fares.

North Carolina Demographic Data (2017-18)

Student Data Source: Common Core of Data source: nces.ed.gov
Teacher Data Source: National Teacher and Principal Survey source: nces.ed.gov

Race/ethnicity Students Teachers
Asian 3.3% 0.4%
Black 25.3% 14.7%
Latino 17.5% 3.9%
Multiracial 4.3% 2.5%
American Indian / Alaska Native 1.2% 1.5%
Native Hawaiian / Pacific Islander 0.1% 0%
White 48.3% 77%
Total Percentage of People of Color 48.4% 22.6%

Policy Scan

To increase the racial diversity of the educator workforce, states must create the right policy conditions to support educator preparation programs, districts, and schools in their efforts to prepare, recruit, and retain teachers of color. The following describes the state’s progress toward creating those policy conditions:

RATING SCALE

Meets Criteria
Partially Meets Criteria
Does Not Meet Criteria

Goals

  1. Make educator diversity data visible and actionable to stakeholders
  2. Set clear goals at the state and district level to increase student access to strong and diverse educators
  3. Support preparation programs to recruit and prepare teachers of color
  4. Target resources to intentionally recruit and hire a diverse teaching workforce
  5. Improve working conditions and provide opportunities for personal and professional growth for teachers of color
meets criteria

GOAL 1: Make Educator Diversity Visible and Actionable

For states to make progress toward increasing the racial diversity of the educator workforce, all stakeholders must have access to useful and timely educator workforce data to set goals and chart a path forward. As keepers of state data systems, state education agencies are best positioned to collect and share these data. The data should be publicly available and easily accessible so stakeholders can make targeted, strategic workforce decisions at the school, district, and state level.

For data to be meaningful, states must:

Criteria
partially meets criteria
Share annual school-level information about the racial demographics of the educator workforce, including online in a dashboard, school report cards, or a statedeveloped report on the diversity of the educator workforce
State Actions

North Carolina posts district-level data on the racial demographics of the educator workforce on the state website. source: apps.schools.nc.gov

However, the state should include school-level data on the racial demographics of the educator workforce on its site and should make it easier to interpret. For an example, see Massachusetts’ data dashboard. source: profiles.doe.mass.edu

Rating Methodology:

Publicly available school-level data about the racial demographics of the teacher workforce included in a dashboard, report card, or report on the state of the teacher workforce;
Publicly available district-level information about the racial demographics of the teacher workforce included in a dashboard, report card, or report on the state of teacher workforce;
State-level information or no publicly available data on the racial demographics of the educator workforce.

Criteria
meets criteria
Share the racial makeup of candidates attending in-state teacher preparation programs annually, included online in a dashboard, school report cards, or a state developed report on the diversity of the educator workforce
State Actions

North Carolina posts program-level data on the racial makeup of candidates entering in-state teacher preparation programs on the state website. source: dpi.nc.gov

The state earned a green and is rated as a best practice in this category.

Rating Methodology:

Publicly available data on the racial makeup of candidates entering each in-state teacher preparation programs each year, located through a state report or program report cards on the state-led website;
Publicly available data on website through links to the federal Title II reports and/or state-level diversity of candidates enrolled in teacher preparation programs;
Racial makeup of candidates entering teacher preparation programs not publicly available at all.

Criteria
meets criteria
Share the racial makeup of candidates completing in-state teacher preparation programs annually, included online in a dashboard, school report cards, or a statedeveloped report on the diversity of the educator workforce
State Actions

North Carolina posts program-level data on the racial makeup of candidates that complete in-state teacher preparation programs on the state website. source: gdacreporting.ondemand.sas.com

Therefore, the state earned a green in this category. For another example of a state that earned a green, see Tennessee’s publicly available dashboard of the number of racially diverse candidate completers at each educator preparation program. source: tn.gov documents/2019-educator-preparation-report-card/2019_Data_Download.xlsx

Rating Methodology:

Publicly available data on the racial makeup of candidates completing in-state teacher preparation programs by program-level each year, located through a state report or program report cards on the state-led website;
Publicly available data on website with state-level diversity of candidates completing teacher preparation programs;
Racial makeup of program completers at in-state teacher preparation programs not publicly available.

Criteria
partially meets criteria
Publicly available persistence data disaggregated by race/ethnicity on teachers who remain in the profession
State Actions

North Carolina posts state-level data on the retention rates of educators of color on the state website. source: hunt-institute.org

However, the state should include data on the retention rates of educators of color through a dashboard, on individual school reports cards, or through a state-developed report that analyzes the retention rates of educators of color. For an example, see Delaware’s educator mobility data dashboard. source: data.delaware.gov

Rating Methodology:

Publicly available retention or turnover data disaggregated by race/ethnicity at the school-level;
Publicly available retention or turnover data disaggregated by race/ethnicity at the state or district-level;
No data available on retention or turnover by race/ethnicity.

partially meets criteria

GOAL 2: Set clear goals at the state and district level to increase student access to strong and diverse educators

In order to create actionable goals to increase the racial diversity of the educator workforce, states must::

Criteria
partially meets criteria
Set a clear, numeric goal for increasing the racial diversity of the educator workforce that is measurable, publicly available, and includes an ultimate goal that is limited in time (e.g., within five years).
State Actions

North Carolina hosted the DRIVE Summit to develop a taskforce to create measurable state goals and identify strategies to increase the racial diversity of the educator workforce. source: ednc.org

However, the state should create a clear, numeric goal that is measurable and limited in time and make it publicly available. For an example, see Arkansas’ goal to increase the number of minority teachers in public schools by 25% in 2025. source: dese.ade.arkansas.gov

Rating Methodology:

Has clear, numeric goal for increasing the racial diversity of the educator workforce that is measurable, publicly available, and includes a goal that is limited in time (e.g., increasing percentage of teachers of color by 25% in five years);
Has publicly stated a goal or desire to increase the diversity of the workforce, but the goal is not numeric, measurable, nor includes a goal that is limited in time;
Has no publicly stated goal for increasing teacher diversity.

Criteria
meets criteria
Offer opportunities to local stakeholders to provide input on and support for the goals
State Actions

North Carolina hosted the DRIVE Summit to develop a taskforce to measure goals and identify strategies to increase the racial diversity of the educator workforce. source: ednc.org

Therefore, the state earned a green in this category.

Rating Methodology:

Makes an intentional effort to engage local stakeholders to provide input and support on educator diversity goals, including through stakeholder forums, listening tours, and meetings with key education advocacy groups;
Offers public comment on legislation or policy changes related to efforts to increase the racial diversity of the educator workforce;
Does not provide opportunities to local stakeholders to provide input and support for the goals.

Criteria
does not meet criteria
Provide funding and guidance for districts and/or educator preparation programs to set goals and invest in strategies to increase the racial diversity of their educator populations
State Actions

North Carolina does not provide funding or guidance for districts and preparation programs to set goals and invest in strategies to increase the racial diversity of the workforce.

The state should provide guidance and funding for districts and /or educator preparation programs to set goals, implement strategies, and develop plans to monitor progress. For an example, see New Jersey’s Diversifying the Teacher Pipeline Competitive Grant Program for educator preparation programs to expand and develop plans to recruit and prepare more educators of color to meet the needs of partnering Local Education Agencies. source: nj.gov

Rating Methodology:

Provided guidance and funding in the last five years for districts and/or preparation programs to set goals and invest in strategies to increase the racial diversity of the workforce;
Provided guidance to districts and/or preparation programs in the last five years for setting goals and investing in strategies to increase the racial diversity of the workforce, but does not provide funding;
No guidance or funding for districts and/or preparation programs to set goals and invest in strategies to increase the racial diversity of the workforce.

Criteria
partially meets criteria
Develop a task force, advisory group, or role within the state education agency with access to leadership to examine, create, and monitor strategies to increase the racial diversity of the educator workforce
State Actions

North Carolina led a DRIVE Summit to develop a taskforce to measure goals and identify strategies to increase the racial diversity of the educator workforce. source: ednc.org

However, the state use that group to create a report or brief that includes data and recommendations to increase the racial diversity of the workforce at the state-level. For an example, see Ohio’s Diversifying the Education Profession in Ohio Taskforce brief from the fall of 2018. source: education.ohio.gov

Rating Methodology:

Publicly shared information about a task force or advisory group that created a report or brief that includes data and recommendations to increase the racial diversity of the workforce at the state-level;
Publicly announced the formation of a group to examine or support educator diversity efforts at the state-level with no evidence of products that include data, recommendations, or state-level actions to address the racial diversity of the workforce;
No publicly announced group to examine educator diversity.

does not meet criteria

GOAL 3: Support preparation programs to recruit and prepare teachers of color

States must invest in multiple inputs toward building an educator pipeline to increase the racial diversity of the workforce, starting with the preparation of educators of color. The state must create opportunities for educators of color to enroll and succeed in preparation programs and limit unnecessary barriers to the profession.

In order to support the preparation of teachers of color, the state must:

Criteria
does not meet criteria
Invest in scholarship and loan forgiveness programs to attract students of color into preparation programs and the teaching profession
State Actions

North Carolina does not invest in scholarships and/or loan forgiveness programs to attract students of color into teacher preparation programs.

The state should invest in scholarships and/or loan forgiveness programs that target students of color. For an example, see Florida’s Minority Teacher Education Scholars Program. source: ffmt.org

Rating Methodology:

Investment in scholarship and/or loan forgiveness programs with the focus of attracting candidates of color and diversifying the educator workforce;
Investment in scholarship and/or loan forgiveness programs that help attract all candidates to the profession but does not prioritize candidates of color;
No investment in scholarship and loan forgiveness programs to recruit future candidates.

Criteria
does not meet criteria
Adopt rigorous program approval standards to compel teacher preparation programs to recruit and graduate candidates of color
State Actions

North Carolina does not have any program approval standards that compel programs to recruit and graduate candidates of color.

The state should adopt a program approval standard that requires preparation programs to show evidence of plans and efforts to recruit and support a more racially diverse candidate pool in their programs. For an example, see Alabama’s program approval standards. source: alsde.edu

Rating Methodology:

Program approval standard requires programs to report plans or efforts to recruit and/or support candidates of color;
Programs are required to share data on specific outcomes related to graduating and enrolling candidates of color but no requirement to share plans or efforts to intentionally recruit or graduate candidates of color;
No mention of recruiting or graduating candidates of color from preparation programs.

Criteria
partially meets criteria
Interrogate licensure policies for racial bias and adopt licensure policies that increase diversity while maintaining quality and rigor
State Actions

North Carolina’s Professional Educator Preparation and Standards Commission (PEPSC) has recommended a measure to collect information on the enrollment, persistence, and completion of Educator Preparation Programs in the state. source: dpi.nc.gov

However, the state should take concrete actions to change licensure policies to increase diversity including eliminating assessments or other burdensome licensure requirements that disproportionally affect candidates of color.

Rating Methodology:

Took concrete actions to change licensure policies to increase diversity, including eliminating assessments or other burdensome licensure requirements that disproportionally affect candidates of color;
Stated the priority to interrogate licensure policies and took one or more the following actions: 1) Statutory mandates to report and continuously monitor trends on passage rates and how policies impact candidates of color; 2) Convened a set of practitioners to interrogate licensure policies for ethno-racial bias and issued recommendations for state action to remedy bias;
No efforts to interrogate licensure policies for racial bias or adopt licensure policies that increase diversity while maintaining quality and rigor.

Criteria
does not meet criteria
Invest in preparation programs that prepare a high number of teachers of color, including minority serving institutions
State Actions

North Carolina does not intentionally invest in teacher preparation programs that prepare a high number of candidates of color.

The state should invest in supports and incentives for programs that prepare a high number of teachers of color, including MSIs, to grow their efforts to recruit and graduate more teachers of color. For an example, see Virginia’s increased investment in local Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) that prepare teachers of color to work in STEM fields. source: virginiabusiness.com

Rating Methodology:

Investment in minority serving institutions or programs that are intentionally dedicated to recruiting and supporting candidates of color through grants or other funding sources dedicated to replicating and expanding their success in attracting and preparing candidates of color and diversifying the educator workforce;
Guidance or recommendation to recruit from or develop partnerships with minority serving institutions;
No intentional investment in MSIs or programs that prepare a disproportionate number of candidates of color.

partially meets criteria

GOAL 4: Target resources to districts and schools to support efforts to intentionally recruit and hire a diverse teaching workforce

Many districts and schools across the country struggle to recruit and hire a more diverse teaching workforce using traditional methods. States play an important role in targeting resources toward these districts and schools to help develop initiatives that increase the racial diversity of the workforce.

Research-based strategies that states should take to target resources toward these districts and schools include:

Criteria
meets criteria
Providing funding, guidance, and public support for Grow Your Own (GYO) programs that attract candidates of color
State Actions

North Carolina invests in the Teacher Assistants Reimbursement Pilot Program (TA’s to Teachers) which assists teacher assistants who want to pursue a college degree that will result in teacher licensure. source: dpi.nc.gov

Therefore, the state earned a green in this category. For another example of a state that earned a green, see Texas’ Grow Your Own grant program. source: tea.texas.gov

Rating Methodology:

Includes developing and expanding GYO programming as a priority through a change to state education agency or state-level legislation, funds GYO programming from the state level, and provides state-led guidance on developing GYO programming;
Positive policy conditions to encourage districts/preparation programs to develop GYO programming (e.g., providing scholarships or stipends to paraprofessionals to complete licensure requirements to become teachers); or provides guidance or encouragement through their SEA website to create GYO programs;
No state support for GYO programs.

Criteria
does not meet criteria
Investing in and providing guidance on cultural competence and anti-bias trainings and resources for hiring managers
State Actions

North Carolina shows no evidence of meeting this standard.

Therefore, the state earned a red in this category.

Rating Methodology:

Provides professional development and training on cultural competence and/or anti-bias practices for hiring managers at the state level to increase the racial diversity of the workforce;
Provides resources for hiring managers at the state and district level to help increase the racial diversity of the workforce;
No evidence of investment in resources or trainings on cultural competence and/or anti-bias practices for hiring managers at the state level to increase the racial diversity of the workforce.

Criteria
meets criteria
Investing in teacher academies and dual enrollment programming to promote the teaching professional to a racially diverse student population
State Actions

North Carolina created the Future Teachers of North Carolina to encourage high-achieving high school students to consider teaching as a career. source: myapps.northcarolina.edu

Therefore, the state earned a green in this category. For another example of a state that earned a green, see Oregon’s Minority Educator Pipeline Models Grant which provides funds to school districts and postsecondary institutions to create collaborative processes, including a high school cadet program to recruit future educators who are culturally and linguistically diverse. source: oregon.gov

Rating Methodology:

Investment in teacher academies and dual-enrollment programming with the focus on attracting candidates of color and diversifying the educator workforce;
Investment in teacher academies and/or dual-enrollment programming that help all candidates to the profession but does not prioritize candidates of color;
No investment in teacher academies and dual-enrollment programming to recruit future candidates.

Criteria
partially meets criteria
Investing in partnerships between districts and teacher preparation programs, particularly programs with a diverse candidate population, to ensure targeted hiring
State Actions

North Carolina requires educator preparation programs to report the direct and ongoing service the institutions provide to the state’s public schools throughout each school year.

However, the state should invest in partnerships between districts and teacher preparation programs with the focus of attracting candidates of color to diversify the educator workforce. For an example, see New York’s Teacher Diversity Pipeline Pilot program that funds partnerships between districts, preparation programs, and other entities to assist teacher aides and teaching assistants in obtaining teacher certifications. source: p12.nysed.gov

Rating Methodology:

Investment in programming that increases the diversity of the workforce in leadership positions like district leadership or school leadership through pipeline programs that target candidates of color;
Providing opportunities to pipeline programming or ways to develop leadership qualities for all teachers but none that target or prioritize teachers of color;
No targeted pipeline or leadership development opportunities.

Criteria
does not meet criteria
Investing in diversifying the educator workforce in areas that influence hiring and recruitment decisions, including the education leaders at teacher preparation programs, district leadership, and school leadership
State Actions

North Carolina does not invest in diversifying the educator workforce in areas that influence hiring and recruitment decisions.

The state should invest in diversifying the educator workforce in areas that influence hiring and recruitment decisions, including the education leaders at teacher preparation programs, district leadership, and school leadership. For an example, see Massachusetts’ investment in diversifying the superintendent pipeline. source: doe.mass.edu

Rating Methodology:

Investment in programming that increases the diversity of the workforce in leadership positions like district leadership or school leadership through pipeline programs that target candidates of color;
Providing opportunities to pipeline programming or ways to develop leadership qualities for all teachers but none that target or prioritize teachers of color;
No targeted pipeline or leadership development opportunities.

does not meet criteria

GOAL 5: Invest in efforts to retain teachers of color including improving working conditions and providing opportunities for personal and professional growth for teachers of color

While many states have invested heavily in efforts to recruit teachers of color, these efforts are compromised when districts and schools have difficulty retaining teachers of color. States can improve retention of teachers of color by investing in programming that provides ongoing support and growth opportunities and improves poor working conditions that disproportionately impact teachers of color.

Strategies that states should take to retain teachers of color include:

Criteria
does not meet criteria
Investing in high-retention pathways to teaching, including residency models and alternative certification programs that traditionally support and develop teachers of color
State Actions

North Carolina shows no evidence of meeting this standard.

The state should invest in high-retention pathways to teaching, including residency models and alternative certification programs that traditionally support and develop teachers of color. For an example, see Pennsylvania’s use of Title II, Part A funds to expand residency programs through the Innovative Teacher and Principal Residency Programs Grant. source: education.pa.gov

Rating Methodology:

State investment in residency programming including financial investment in programs at the preparation level; investment in alternative certification to recruit and support teachers of color;
Flexible licensure requirements that provide the opportunity for alternative certification programs to recruit and prepare candidates of color or candidates from non-traditional pathways; guidance for running residency programs; and/or public support for residency programs locally;
No investment or policy support for residency programming or alternative certification programming.

Criteria
does not meet criteria
Investing in opportunities for teachers of color to grow and develop in their abilities and their qualification for leadership roles, including targeted professional development, cohort models, and continuing education opportunities
State Actions

North Carolina shows no evidence of meeting this standard.

The state does not provide professional learning opportunities for teachers of color to grow their leadership abilities nor does it invest in pathways to leadership opportunities for teachers of color. For an example, see Massachusetts’ investment in diversifying the superintendent pipeline. source: doe.mass.edu

Rating Methodology:

Professional development opportunities for teachers of color to grow leadership abilities and investing in pathways to leadership opportunities for teachers of color;
Teacher leadership opportunities and/or opportunities to develop leadership qualities for all teachers but none that target or prioritize teachers of color;
No targeted leadership development opportunities.

Criteria
meets criteria
Investing in induction and mentoring programs that provide support to teachers of color early in their careers
State Actions

North Carolina provides a three-year induction and mentoring program for new teachers.

Therefore, the state earned a green in this category. For another example of a state that earned a green, see Delaware’s four-year induction an mentoring program for new teachers. source: doe.k12.de.us

Rating Methodology:

Investment in induction programs that are at least two years and provide mentor support;
Investment in induction programs that are less than two years with less than two years of mentoring;
No induction programming or requirement for districts to provide induction programming for new teachers.

Criteria
does not meet criteria
Providing trainings and opportunities for school and district leaders to become culturally responsive in practice and improve school cultures for teachers from diverse backgrounds
State Actions

North Carolina shows no evidence of meeting this standard.

Therefore, the state earned a red in this category.

Rating Methodology:

State-led professional learning sessions for district and school leaders;
Guidance on ways to ensure cultural competence for district and school leaders;
No evidence of programming or support in this space.