Resource

RESEARCH SAYS THAT TEACHER DIVERSITY BENEFITS ALL STUDENTS, REGARDLESS OF RACE OR ETHNICITY. HOWEVER, WHILE THE MAJORITY OF STUDENTS IN THE U.S. ARE OF COLOR, ONLY ABOUT 20% OF TEACHERS ARE OF COLOR.
Increasing the racial and cultural diversity of the teacher workforce takes a statewide commitment to collecting and analyzing educator workforce data and leading targeted, data-informed efforts to develop policies that recruit, support, and retain a high-quality and diverse educator workforce. This brief is designed to support these efforts by providing data analyses and a landscape of policies and practices in each state for advocates, educators, and policymakers leading this work at the state level. See how Texas fares.

Texas Demographic Data (2019-20)

Student Data Source: state website  source: rptsvr1.tea.texas….
Teacher Data Source: state website  source: rptsvr1.tea.texas….

Race/ethnicity Students Teachers
Asian 4.5% 1.7%
Black 12.6% 10%
Latino 53% 28%
Multiracial 2.4% 1.1%
American Indian / Alaska Native 0.4% 0.3%
Native Hawaiian / Pacific Islander 0.2% 0.2%
White 28% 59%
Total Percentage of People of Color 68% 40%
Schools With No Teachers of Color 4.7%
Percentage of All Students in Schools with No Teachers of Color 1.8%

To examine whether students have access to diverse teachers in their schools, we analyzed school-level data on teacher and student race and ethnicity. The following describes state-level findings regarding students’ access to teachers of color and same-race teachers as well as the prevalence of teachers teaching in schools with no other same-race colleagues.

State Teacher Diversity Data
Asian Black Latino Multiracial American Indian/ Alaska Native Native Haw./ Pac. Islander White
Percent of students attending schools with no teachers of color 0.7% 0.5% 0.7% * * * 4.7%
Percent of students attending schools with no same-race teachers 24% 6.3% 1.7% * * * 0.1%
Percent of students attending schools with <5% same-race teachers 28% 80% 94% * * * 100%
Percent of teachers working in schools with no other same-race teacher 24% 3.3% 0.8% 42% 72% 44% 0.1%
*Less than 3% students
# Fewer than 10 teachers

District Teacher Diversity Data

Access to diverse teachers can vary widely across districts within a state – statewide averages can mask those differences. The following describes the same data points on access to diverse teachers for the three largest districts in the state.

CYPRESS-FAIRBANKS ISD

Student Experience by Race/Ethnicity
Asian Black Latino Multiracial Native Pacific Islander White
Percent of students attending schools with no teachers of color 0% 0% 0% * * * 0%
Percent of students attending schools with no same-race teachers 20% 1.5% 0.6% * * # 0%
Percent of students attending schools with <5% same-race teachers 17% 89% 96% * * # 100%
Percent of teachers working in schools with no other same-race teacher 8.9% 0.4% 0.3% 25% 80% # 0%
*Less than 3% students
# Fewer than 10 teachers

DALLAS ISD

Student Experience by Race/Ethnicity
Asian Black Latino Multiracial Native Pacific Islander White
Percent of students attending schools with no teachers of color * 0% 0% * * * 0%
Percent of students attending schools with no same-race teachers * 0.3% 0.3% * * * 0.3%
Percent of students attending schools with <5% same-race teachers * 99% 98% * * * 99%
Percent of teachers working in schools with no other same-race teacher 18% 0.2% 0.3% 34% 58% 82% 0.2%
*Less than 3% students
# Fewer than 10 teachers

HOUSTON ISD

Student Experience by Race/Ethnicity
Asian Black Latino Multiracial Native Pacific Islander White
Percent of students attending schools with no teachers of color 0% 0% 0% * * * 0%
Percent of students attending schools with no same-race teachers 4.7% 0.2% 0.7% * * * 0.3%
Percent of students attending schools with <5% same-race teachers 77% 99% 99% * * * 98%
Percent of teachers working in schools with no other same-race teacher 9.1% 0.1% 0.3% 42% 94% 88% 0.7%
*Less than 3% students
# Fewer than 10 teachers

Policy Scan

To increase the racial diversity of the educator workforce, states must create the right policy conditions to support educator preparation programs, districts, and schools in their efforts to prepare, recruit, and retain teachers of color. The following describes the state’s progress toward creating those policy conditions:

RATING SCALE

Meets Criteria
Partially Meets Criteria
Does Not Meet Criteria

Goals

  1. Make educator diversity data visible and actionable to stakeholders
  2. Set clear goals at the state and district level to increase student access to strong and diverse educators
  3. Support preparation programs to recruit and prepare teachers of color
  4. Target resources to intentionally recruit and hire a diverse teaching workforce
  5. Improve working conditions and provide opportunities for personal and professional growth for teachers of color
partially meets criteria

GOAL 1: Make Educator Diversity Visible and Actionable

For states to make progress toward increasing the racial diversity of the educator workforce, all stakeholders must have access to useful and timely educator workforce data to set goals and chart a path forward. As keepers of state data systems, state education agencies are best positioned to collect and share these data. The data should be publicly available and easily accessible so stakeholders can make targeted, strategic workforce decisions at the school, district, and state level.

For data to be meaningful, states must:

Criteria
meets criteria
Share annual school-level information about the racial demographics of the educator workforce, including online in a dashboard, school report cards, or a statedeveloped report on the diversity of the educator workforce
State Actions

Texas posts school-level data on the racial demographics of the educator workforce on the state website. source: rptsvr1.tea.texas.gov

Therefore, the state earned a green in this category. For another example of a state that earned a green, see Massachusetts’ data dashboard. source: profiles.doe.mass.edu

Rating Methodology:

Publicly available school-level data about the racial demographics of the teacher workforce included in a dashboard, report card, or report on the state of the teacher workforce;
Publicly available district-level information about the racial demographics of the teacher workforce included in a dashboard, report card, or report on the state of teacher workforce;
State-level information or no publicly available data on the racial demographics of the educator workforce.

Criteria
does not meet criteria
Share the racial makeup of candidates attending in-state teacher preparation programs annually, included online in a dashboard, school report cards, or a statedeveloped report on the diversity of the educator workforce
State Actions

Texas does not include any information about the racial makeup of candidates attending in-state teacher preparation programs on the state website.

The state should include a racial breakdown of the candidates at each in-state teacher preparation program on their state education agency website, either through a dashboard or on individual educator preparation program report cards to provide key information to stakeholders. For an example, see North Carolina’s report cards. source: dpi.nc.gov

Rating Methodology:

Publicly available data on the racial makeup of candidates entering each in-state teacher preparation programs each year, located through a state report or program report cards on the state-led website;
Publicly available data on website through links to the federal Title II reports and/or state-level diversity of candidates enrolled in teacher preparation programs;
Racial makeup of candidates entering teacher preparation programs not publicly available at all.

Criteria
meets criteria
Share the racial makeup of candidates completing in-state teacher preparation programs annually, included online in a dashboard, school report cards, or a statedeveloped report on the diversity of the educator workforce
State Actions

Texas posts program-level data on the racial makeup of candidates that complete in-state teacher preparation programs on the state website. source: tea4avcastro.tea.state.tx.us

Therefore, the state earned a green in this category. source: tn.gov

Rating Methodology:

Publicly available data on the racial makeup of candidates completing in-state teacher preparation programs by program-level each year, located through a state report or program report cards on the state-led website;
Publicly available data on website with state-level diversity of candidates completing teacher preparation programs;
Racial makeup of program completers at in-state teacher preparation programs not publicly available.

Criteria
does not meet criteria
Publicly available persistence data disaggregated by race/ethnicity on teachers who remain in the profession
State Actions

Texas does not post information about the retention rates of educators of color on the state website.

The state should include data on the retention rates of educators of color through a dashboard, on individual school report cards, or through a state-developed report that analyzes the retention rates of educators of color. For an example, see Delaware’s educator mobility data dashboard. source: data.delaware.gov

Rating Methodology:

Publicly available retention or turnover data disaggregated by race/ethnicity at the school-level;
Publicly available retention or turnover data disaggregated by race/ethnicity at the state or district-level;
No data available on retention or turnover by race/ethnicity.
does not meet criteria

GOAL 2: Set clear goals at the state and district level to increase student access to strong and diverse educators

In order to create actionable goals to increase the racial diversity of the educator workforce, states must::

Criteria
does not meet criteria
Set a clear, numeric goal for increasing the racial diversity of the educator workforce that is measurable, publicly available, and includes an ultimate goal that is limited in time (e.g., within five years).
State Actions

Texas does not have a clear, numeric goal that is measurable and limited in time to increase the racial diversity of the educator workforce.

The state should create a clear, numeric goal that is measurable and limited in time and make it publicly available. For an example, see Arkansas’ goal to increase the number of minority teachers in public schools by 25% in 2025. source: dese.ade.arkansas.gov

Rating Methodology:

Has clear, numeric goal for increasing the racial diversity of the educator workforce that is measurable, publicly available, and includes a goal that is limited in time (e.g., increasing percentage of teachers of color by 25% in five years);
Has publicly stated a goal or desire to increase the diversity of the workforce, but the goal is not numeric, measurable, nor includes a goal that is limited in time;
Has no publicly stated goal for increasing teacher diversity.

Criteria
does not meet criteria
Offer opportunities to local stakeholders to provide input on and support for the goals
State Actions

Texas showed no evidence of meeting this goal.

The state should make an intentional effort to engage local stakeholders to provide input and support on their future educator diversity goals.

Rating Methodology:

Makes an intentional effort to engage local stakeholders to provide input and support on educator diversity goals, including through stakeholder forums, listening tours, and meetings with key education advocacy groups;
Offers public comment on legislation or policy changes related to efforts to increase the racial diversity of the educator workforce;
Does not provide opportunities to local stakeholders to provide input and support for the goals.

Criteria
does not meet criteria
Provide funding and guidance for districts and/or educator preparation programs to set goals and invest in strategies to increase the racial diversity of their educator populations
State Actions

Texas showed no evidence of meeting this goal.

The state should provide guidance and funding for districts and /or educator preparation programs to set goals, implement strategies, and develop plans to monitor progress. For an example, see New Jersey’s Diversifying the Teacher Pipeline Competitive Grant Program for educator preparation programs to expand and develop plans to recruit and prepare more educators of color to meet the needs of partnering district or local education agencies. source: nj.gov

Rating Methodology:

Provided guidance and funding in the last five years for districts and/or preparation programs to set goals and invest in strategies to increase the racial diversity of the workforce;
Provided guidance to districts and/or preparation programs in the last five years for setting goals and investing in strategies to increase the racial diversity of the workforce, but does not provide funding;
No guidance or funding for districts and/or preparation programs to set goals and invest in strategies to increase the racial diversity of the workforce.

Criteria
does not meet criteria
Develop a task force, advisory group, or role within the state education agency with access to leadership to examine, create, and monitor strategies to increase the racial diversity of the educator workforce
State Actions

Texas showed no evidence of meeting this goal.

The state should bring together a task force or advisory group that can create a report or brief that includes data and recommendations to increase the racial diversity of the workforce at the state-level. For an example, see Ohio’s Diversifying the Education Profession in Ohio Taskforce brief from fall 2018. source: education.ohio.gov

Rating Methodology:

Publicly shared information about a task force or advisory group that created a report or brief that includes data and recommendations to increase the racial diversity of the workforce at the state-level;
Publicly announced the formation of a group to examine or support educator diversity efforts at the state-level with no evidence of products that include data, recommendations, or state-level actions to address the racial diversity of the workforce;
No publicly announced group to examine educator diversity.
partially meets criteria

GOAL 3: Support preparation programs to recruit and prepare teachers of color

States must invest in multiple inputs toward building an educator pipeline to increase the racial diversity of the workforce, starting with the preparation of educators of color. The state must create opportunities for educators of color to enroll and succeed in preparation programs and limit unnecessary barriers to the profession.

In order to support the preparation of teachers of color, the state must:

Criteria
partially meets criteria
Invest in scholarship and loan forgiveness programs to attract students of color into preparation programs and the teaching profession
State Actions

Texas invests in loan forgiveness programming for educators based on shortage and high-needs areas but not specifically targeting teachers of color. source: tea.texas.gov

However, the state should invest in scholarships and/or loan forgiveness programs that target students of color. For an example, see Florida’s Minority Teacher Education Scholars Program. source: ffmt.org

Rating Methodology:

Investment in scholarship and/or loan forgiveness programs with the focus of attracting candidates of color and diversifying the educator workforce;
Investment in scholarship and/or loan forgiveness programs that help attract all candidates to the profession but does not prioritize candidates of color;
No investment in scholarship and loan forgiveness programs to recruit future candidates.

Criteria
partially meets criteria
Adopt rigorous program approval standards to compel teacher preparation programs to recruit and graduate candidates of color
State Actions

Texas has a rigorous program approval standard for preparing and graduating candidates of color. source: tea4avcastro.tea.state.tx.us

However, the state should adopt a program approval standard that requires preparation programs to show evidence of plans and efforts to recruit and support a more racially diverse candidate pool in their programs. For an example, see Alabama’s program approval standards. source: alsde.edu

Rating Methodology:

Program approval standard requires programs to report plans or efforts to recruit and/or support candidates of color;
Programs are required to share data on specific outcomes related to graduating and enrolling candidates of color but no requirement to share plans or efforts to intentionally recruit or graduate candidates of color;
No mention of recruiting or graduating candidates of color from preparation programs.

Criteria
partially meets criteria
Interrogate licensure policies for racial bias and adopt licensure policies that increase diversity while maintaining quality and rigor
State Actions

Texas developed explicit goals regarding closing pass rates by race and ethnicity during their teacher and principal certification redesign process.

However, the state should take concrete actions to change licensure policies to increase diversity including eliminating assessments or other burdensome licensure requirements that disproportionally affect candidates of color.

Rating Methodology:

Took concrete actions to change licensure policies to increase diversity, including eliminating assessments or other burdensome licensure requirements that disproportionally affect candidates of color;
Stated the priority to interrogate licensure policies and took one or more the following actions: 1) Statutory mandates to report and continuously monitor trends on passage rates and how policies impact candidates of color; 2) Convened a set of practitioners to interrogate licensure policies for ethno-racial bias and issued recommendations for state action to remedy bias;
No efforts to interrogate licensure policies for racial bias or adopt licensure policies that increase diversity while maintaining quality and rigor.

Criteria
does not meet criteria
Invest in preparation programs that prepare a high number of teachers of color, including minority serving institutions
State Actions

Texas does not invest in teacher preparation programs that prepare a high number of candidates of color

The state should invest in supports and incentives for programs that prepare a high number of teachers of color, including minority serving institutions (MSIs), to grow their efforts to recruit and graduate more teachers of color. For an example, see Virginia’s increased investment in local historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) that prepare teachers of color to work in STEM fields. source: virginiabusiness.com

Rating Methodology:

Investment in minority serving institutions or programs that are intentionally dedicated to recruiting and supporting candidates of color through grants or other funding sources dedicated to replicating and expanding their success in attracting and preparing candidates of color and diversifying the educator workforce;
Guidance or recommendation to recruit from or develop partnerships with minority serving institutions;
No intentional investment in MSIs or programs that prepare a disproportionate number of candidates of color.
meets criteria

GOAL 4: Target resources to districts and schools to support efforts to intentionally recruit and hire a diverse teaching workforce

Many districts and schools across the country struggle to recruit and hire a more diverse teaching workforce using traditional methods. States play an important role in targeting resources toward these districts and schools to help develop initiatives that increase the racial diversity of the workforce.

Research-based strategies that states should take to target resources toward these districts and schools include:

Criteria
meets criteria
Providing funding, guidance, and public support for Grow Your Own (GYO) programs that attract candidates of color
State Actions

Texas provides funding opportunities and guidance for districts and preparation programs to invest in Grow Your Own (GYO) programming to increase the quality and diversity of the workforce. source: tea.texas.gov

The state earned a green and is rated as a best practice in this category.

Rating Methodology:

Includes developing and expanding GYO programming as a priority through a change to state education agency or state-level legislation, funds GYO programming from the state level, and provides state-led guidance on developing GYO programming;
Positive policy conditions to encourage districts/preparation programs to develop GYO programming (e.g., providing scholarships or stipends to paraprofessionals to complete licensure requirements to become teachers); or provides guidance or encouragement through their SEA website to create GYO programs;
No state support for GYO programs.

Criteria
does not meet criteria
Investing in and providing guidance on cultural competence and anti-bias trainings and resources for hiring managers
State Actions

Texas does not invest in guidance on cultural competence or anti-bias professional development for hiring managers in the state.

The state should provide professional development and training on cultural competence and/or anti-bias practices for its hiring managers.

Rating Methodology:

Provides professional development and training on cultural competence and/or anti-bias practices for hiring managers at the state level to increase the racial diversity of the workforce;
Provides resources for hiring managers at the state and district level to help increase the racial diversity of the workforce;
No evidence of investment in resources or trainings on cultural competence and/or anti-bias practices for hiring managers at the state level to increase the racial diversity of the workforce.

Criteria
meets criteria
Investing in teacher academies and dual enrollment programming to promote the teaching professional to a racially diverse student population
State Actions

Texas requires that the Texas Education Agency transfer excess funds in the charter school liquidation fund to support a grant program established by the agency to encourage high school students to enter the teaching profession. The state also invests in a pathway in their Grow Your Own programming that includes an option to develop teacher academies at the district level. source: tea.texas.gov

Therefore, the state earned a green in this category. For another example of a state that earned a green, see Oregon’s Minority Educator Pipeline Models Grant which provides funds to school districts and postsecondary institutions to create collaborative processes, including a high school cadet program to recruit future educators who are culturally and linguistically diverse. source: oregon.gov

Rating Methodology:

Investment in teacher academies and dual-enrollment programming with the focus on attracting candidates of color and diversifying the educator workforce;
Investment in teacher academies and/or dual-enrollment programming that help all candidates to the profession but does not prioritize candidates of color;
No investment in teacher academies and dual-enrollment programming to recruit future candidates.

Criteria
meets criteria
Investing in partnerships between districts and teacher preparation programs, particularly programs with a diverse candidate population, to ensure targeted hiring
State Actions

Texas provides funding opportunities and guidance for districts to partner with preparation programs to invest in Grow Your Own programming to increase the quality and diversity of the workforce. The guidance includes resources to support the development of strong partnerships between teacher preparation programs and districts. source: tea.texas.gov

Therefore, the state earned a green in this category. For another example of a state that earned a green, see New York’s Teacher Diversity Pipeline Pilot program that funds partnerships between districts, preparation programs, and other entities to assist teacher aides and teaching assistants in obtaining teacher certifications. source: p12.nysed.gov

Rating Methodology:

Investment in programming that increases the diversity of the workforce in leadership positions like district leadership or school leadership through pipeline programs that target candidates of color;
Providing opportunities to pipeline programming or ways to develop leadership qualities for all teachers but none that target or prioritize teachers of color;
No targeted pipeline or leadership development opportunities.

Criteria
meets criteria
Investing in diversifying the educator workforce in areas that influence hiring and recruitment decisions, including the education leaders at teacher preparation programs, district leadership, and school leadership
State Actions

Texas invests in the Principal Residency Grant to provide districts with an opportunity to build strong campus leaders and support internal leadership pipelines through full-time, year-long principal residencies. The Grant includes a goal of diversifying the principal workforce. source: tea.texas.gov

Therefore, the state earned a green in this category. For another example of a state that earned a green, see Massachusetts’ investment in diversifying the superintendent pipeline. source: doe.mass.edu

Rating Methodology:

Investment in programming that increases the diversity of the workforce in leadership positions like district leadership or school leadership through pipeline programs that target candidates of color;
Providing opportunities to pipeline programming or ways to develop leadership qualities for all teachers but none that target or prioritize teachers of color;
No targeted pipeline or leadership development opportunities.
meets criteria

GOAL 5: Invest in efforts to retain teachers of color including improving working conditions and providing opportunities for personal and professional growth for teachers of color

While many states have invested heavily in efforts to recruit teachers of color, these efforts are compromised when districts and schools have difficulty retaining teachers of color. States can improve retention of teachers of color by investing in programming that provides ongoing support and growth opportunities and improves poor working conditions that disproportionately impact teachers of color.

Strategies that states should take to retain teachers of color include:

Criteria
partially meets criteria
Investing in high-retention pathways to teaching, including residency models and alternative certification programs that traditionally support and develop teachers of color
State Actions

Texas requires the commissioner of higher education to establish a Texas Teacher Residency Program at a public institution of higher education. source: txcee.org

However, the state should invest in high-retention pathways to teaching, including residency models and alternative certification programs that traditionally support and develop teachers of color. For an example, see Pennsylvania’s use of Title II, Part A funds to expand residency programs through the Innovative Teacher and Principal Residency Programs Grant. source: education.pa.gov

Rating Methodology:

State investment in residency programming including financial investment in programs at the preparation level; investment in alternative certification to recruit and support teachers of color;
Flexible licensure requirements that provide the opportunity for alternative certification programs to recruit and prepare candidates of color or candidates from non-traditional pathways; guidance for running residency programs; and/or public support for residency programs locally;
No investment or policy support for residency programming or alternative certification programming.

Criteria
does not meet criteria
Investing in opportunities for teachers of color to grow and develop in their abilities and their qualification for leadership roles, including targeted professional development, cohort models, and continuing education opportunities
State Actions

Texas does not invest in opportunities for teachers of color to grow and develop in their abilities and qualification for leadership roles while in the classroom.

The state does not provide professional learning opportunities for teachers of color to grow their leadership abilities nor does it invest in pathways to leadership opportunities for teachers of color. For an example, see Massachusetts’ investment in diversifying the superintendent pipeline. source: doe.mass.edu

Rating Methodology:

Professional development opportunities for teachers of color to grow leadership abilities and investing in pathways to leadership opportunities for teachers of color;
Teacher leadership opportunities and/or opportunities to develop leadership qualities for all teachers but none that target or prioritize teachers of color;
No targeted leadership development opportunities.

Criteria
partially meets criteria
Investing in induction and mentoring programs that provide support to teachers of color early in their careers
State Actions

Texas does not require districts to provide mentoring and induction programming but the state allows districts to assign a mentor teacher to each classroom teacher with less than two years of teaching experience. source: tea.texas.gov

However, the state should invest in an induction and mentoring program that provides at least two years of support for new teachers. For an example, see Delaware’s four-year induction an mentoring program for new teachers. source: doe.k12.de.us

Rating Methodology:

Investment in induction programs that are at least two years and provide mentor support;
Investment in induction programs that are less than two years with less than two years of mentoring;
No induction programming or requirement for districts to provide induction programming for new teachers.

Criteria
partially meets criteria
Providing trainings and opportunities for school and district leaders to become culturally responsive in practice and improve school cultures for teachers from diverse backgrounds
State Actions

Texas provided an option for principals and principal supervisors to receive Positive School Culture training through the Education Service Centers in the state which included training on ensuring routines and procedures demonstrated cultural competence. source: texasesf.org

However, the state should invest in and lead professional training opportunities for all school and district leaders to become culturally responsive in practice.

Rating Methodology:

State-led professional learning sessions for district and school leaders;
Guidance on ways to ensure cultural competence for district and school leaders;
No evidence of programming or support in this space.