Resource

RESEARCH SAYS THAT TEACHER DIVERSITY BENEFITS ALL STUDENTS, REGARDLESS OF RACE OR ETHNICITY. HOWEVER, WHILE THE MAJORITY OF STUDENTS IN THE U.S. ARE OF COLOR, ONLY ABOUT 20% OF TEACHERS ARE OF COLOR.
Increasing the racial and cultural diversity of the teacher workforce takes a statewide commitment to collecting and analyzing educator workforce data and leading targeted, data-informed efforts to develop policies that recruit, support, and retain a high-quality and diverse educator workforce. This brief is designed to support these efforts by providing data analyses and a landscape of policies and practices in each state for advocates, educators, and policymakers leading this work at the state level. See how California fares.

California Demographic Data (2018-19)1

Student Data Source: The Education Trust’s analysis of 2018-19 data retrieved from the state website
Teacher Data Source:
The Education Trust’s analysis of 2018-19 data retrieved from the state website

Race/ethnicity Students Teachers2
Asian 9.4% 5.8%
Black 5.4% 3.8%
Latino 54.9% 21.3%
Multiracial 3.6% 1.0%
American Indian / Alaska Native 0.5% 0.5%
Native Hawaiian / Pacific Islander 2.9% 1.8%
White 22.6% 60.9%
Total Percentage of People of Color3 77.4% 39.1%

1. The data was pulled from K-12 public schools in the state, 2. K-12 classroom teacher full-time equivalents, 3. People of color describes people who identify as Asian, Black, Latino, multiracial, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander

Schools With No Teachers of Color 9.1%
Percentage of All Students in Schools with No Teachers of Color 3.0%

To examine whether students have access to diverse teachers in their schools, we analyzed school-level data on teacher and student race and ethnicity. The following describes state-level findings regarding students’ access to teachers of color and same-race teachers as well as the prevalence of teachers teaching in schools with no other same-race colleagues.

For district-level data, please visit this state’s page at edtrust.org/educator- diversity.

State Teacher Diversity Data
Asian Black Latino Multiracial American Indian/ Alaska Native Native Haw./ Pac. Islander White
Percent of students attending schools with no teachers of color 2.8% 1.2% 1.6% 5.2% * * 6.6%
Percent of students attending schools with no same-race teachers 11.3% 22.9% 3.5% 64.9% * * 0.7%
Percent of students attending schools with >5% same-race teachers 71.4% 52% 92.1% 7.7% * * 99%
Percent of teachers working in schools with no other same-race teacher 12.4% 16.6% 2.0% 47% 70.4% 36.7% 0.1%
*too few students or teachers

Access to Non-Novice Teachers in California

Research shows students of color and students from low-income backgrounds are more likely to attend schools with greater numbers of novice teachers than their peers. While new teachers bring energy and passion into their classrooms and schools, teachers face a steep learning curve in their first few years of teaching. Schools with high turnover and a “revolving door” of new teachers can deeply affect student learning.

Here is the state of Black and Latino student access to non-novice and certified teachers in California:

Disparities between schools serving the most and fewest Black students
Schools Serving the Most Black Students Schools Serving the Fewest Black Students
Percent Novice Teachers 14% 11%
Percent First-Year Teachers 7% 5%
Disparities between schools serving the most and fewest Latino students
Schools Serving the Most Latino Students Schools Serving the Fewest Latino Students
Percent Novice Teachers 13% 10%
Percent First-Year Teachers 6% 5%
Disparities between Black and Non-Black Students
Black Students Not-Black Students
Percent of Students in schools with High (≥20%) percentages of Novice Teachers 22% 16%
Percent of Students in schools with High (≥10%) percentages of Uncertified Teachers 10% 6%
Disparities between Latino and Non-Latino Students
Latino Students Not-Latino Students
Percent of Students in schools with High (≥20%) percentages of Novice Teachers 17% 14%
Percent of Students in schools with High (≥10%) percentages of Uncertified Teachers 8% 5%

 

Policy Scan

To increase the racial diversity of the educator workforce, states must create the right policy conditions to support educator preparation programs, districts, and schools in their efforts to prepare, recruit, and retain teachers of color. The following describes the state’s progress toward creating those policy conditions:

RATING SCALE

Meets all or most of the requirements within the goal
Meets some of the requirements within the goal
Meets one or no
requirements within the goal

Strategies:

  1. Make educator diversity data visible and actionable to stakeholders
  2. Set clear goals at the state and district level to increase student access to diverse educators
  3. Invest in educator preparation programs to increase enrollment and improve the preparation of teachers of color
  4. Target resources to districts and schools to support efforts that intentionally recruit and hire a diverse teaching workforce
  5. Invest in efforts to retain teachers of color that improve working conditions and provide opportunities for personal and professional growth
  6. Use federal COVID-related relief funds to invest in strategies that increase the racial diversity of the educator workforce
MEETS ONE OR NO REQUIREMENTS

1: Make Educator Diversity Data Visible and Actionable to Stakeholders

For states to make progress toward increasing the racial diversity of the educator workforce, all stakeholders must have access to useful and timely educator workforce data to set goals and chart a path forward. As keepers of state data systems, state education agencies are best positioned to collect and share this data, which should be publicly available and easily accessible so stakeholders can make targeted, strategic workforce decisions at the school, district, and state level.

For data to be meaningful, states must:

 

Criteria
MEETS ALL OR MOST OF THE REQUIREMENTS
Share annual school-level information about the racial demographics of the educator workforce, including online in a dashboard, school report cards, or a state-developed report on the diversity of the educator workforce
State Actions

California posts school-level data on the racial demographics of the educator workforce on the state website. However, the state is two years behind on making public the data and does not include it as a metric in the state’s accountability system (California School Dashboard).

Therefore, the state earned a green in this category. For another example of a state that earned a green, see Massachusetts’ data dashboard.

Rating Methodology:

Publicly available school-level data about the racial demographics of the teacher workforce included in a dashboard, report card, or report on the state of the teacher workforce
Publicly available district-level information about the racial demographics of the teacher workforce included in a dashboard, report card, or report on the state of teacher workforce
State-level information or no publicly available data on the racial demographics of the educator workforce

 

Criteria
MEETS ONE OR NO REQUIREMENTS
Share the racial makeup of candidates attending in-state teacher preparation programs annually, included online in a dashboard, school report cards, or a state-developed report on the diversity of the educator workforce
State Actions

California does not include any information about the racial makeup of candidates attending in-state teacher preparation programs on the state website.

Therefore, the state earned a red in this category. The state should include a racial breakdown of the candidates at each in-state teacher preparation program on their state education agency website, either through a dashboard or on individual educator preparation program report cards to provide key information to stakeholders. For an example, see Illinois’ Annual Program Reporting system.

Rating Methodology:

Publicly available data on the racial makeup of candidates entering each in-state teacher preparation programs each year, located through a state report or program report cards on the state-led website
Publicly available data on website through links to the federal Title II reports and/or state-level diversity of candidates enrolled in teacher preparation programs
Racial makeup of candidates entering teacher preparation programs not publicly available at all
Criteria
MEETS ONE OR NO REQUIREMENTS
Share the racial makeup of candidates completing in-state teacher preparation programs annually, included online in a dashboard, school report cards, or a state-developed report on the diversity of the educator workforce
State Actions

California does not include any information about the racial makeup of candidates that complete in-state teacher preparation programs on the state website. The state is in the process of building out its Cradle-toCareer Data System to link existing education, workforce, financial aid, and social service information to better equip policymakers, educators, and the public to address disparities in opportunities and improve outcomes for all students throughout the state. However, the state does not plan to include teacher pipeline data.

Therefore, the state earned a red in this category. The state should include a racial breakdown of the candidates that complete the program at each in-state teacher preparation program on their state education agency website either through a dashboard, or on individual educator preparation program report cards to provide key information to stakeholders. For an example, see Tennessee’s dashboard of the number of racially diverse candidate completers at each educator preparation program.

Rating Methodology:

Publicly available data on the racial makeup of candidates completing in-state teacher preparation programs by program-level each year, located through a state report or program report cards on the state-led website
Publicly available data on website with state-level diversity of candidates completing teacher preparation programs
Racial makeup of program completers at in-state teacher preparation programs not publicly available
Criteria
MEETS ONE OR NO REQUIREMENTS
Publicly available persistence data disaggregated by race/ethnicity on teachers who remain in the profession
State Actions

California does not post information about the retention rates of educators of color on the state website.

Therefore, the state earned a red in this category. The state should include data on the retention rates of educators of color through a dashboard, on individual school reports cards, or through a statedeveloped report that analyzes the retention rates of educators of color. For an example, see Delaware’s educator mobility data dashboard.

Rating Methodology:

Publicly available retention or turnover data disaggregated by race/ethnicity at the school-level
Publicly available retention or turnover data disaggregated by race/ethnicity at the state or district-level
No data available on retention or turnover by race/ethnicity
SHOWS IMPROVEMENT

2: Set clear goals at the state and district level to increase student access to diverse educators

To create actionable goals to increase the racial diversity of the educator workforce, states must:

Criteria
MEETS SOME OF THE REQUIREMENTS
Set a clear, numeric goal for increasing the racial diversity of the educator workforce that is measurable, publicly available, and includes a goal that is limited in time (e.g., within five years).
State Actions

California set educator diversity as a public priority, especially to recruit and retain more Black teachers.

However, the state should create a clear, numeric goal that is measurable, limited in time, and publicly available. For an example, see Arkansas’ goal to increase the number of teachers of color in public schools by 25% in 2025.

Rating Methodology:

Has clear, numeric goal for increasing the racial diversity of the educator workforce that is measurable, publicly available, and includes a goal that is limited in time (e.g., increasing percentage of teachers of color by 25% in five years)
Has publicly stated a goal or desire to increase the diversity of the workforce, but the goal is not numeric, measurable, nor includes a goal that is limited in time
Has no publicly stated goal for increasing teacher diversity
Criteria
SHOWS IMPROVEMENT
Offer opportunities to local stakeholders to provide input on and support for the goals
State Actions

California, under the direction of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Tony Thurmond, established the California Department of Education (CDE) Educator Diversity Advisory Group in 2021. Led by Dr. Travis Bristol from UC Berkeley, the group provided recommendations to SSPI Thurmond on how the CDE can recruit, support, and retain teachers of color across the state. Members of the advisory group held four virtual convenings with education stakeholders, county leaders, district leaders, site leaders, and teachers of color to document how practitioners were supporting and retaining an ethnoracially diverse educator workforce, barriers faced to deepening the educator diversity workforce, and policy levers aimed at bolstering teacher diversity efforts. A series of webinars was held highlighting the recommendations from the report, which will be published in a report in 2022.

In addition, CDE staff collaborated with staff from the Region 15 Comprehensive Center and San Diego County Office of Education to form a statewide Community of Practice around diversifying the teacher workforce, which discusses best practices and the educator diversity work that is happening across the state.

Therefore, the state received a green.

Rating Methodology:

Makes an intentional effort to engage local stakeholders to provide input and support on educator diversity goals including through stakeholder forums, listening tours, and meetings with key education advocacy groups
Offers public comment on legislation or policy changes related to efforts to increase the racial diversity of the educator workforce
Does not provide opportunities to local stakeholders to provide input and support for the goals
Criteria
MEETS SOME OF THE REQUIREMENTS
Provide funding and guidance for districts and/ or educator preparation programs to set goals and invest in strategies to increase the racial diversity of their educator populations
State Actions

California provides guidance and preparation programs to invest in strategies to increase the racial diversity of the educator workforce.

The state should pair this guidance with funding opportunities to implement the strategies and develop plans to monitor progress. For an example, see New Jersey’s Diversifying the Teacher Pipeline Competitive Grant Program for educator preparation programs to expand and develop plans to recruit and prepare more educators of color to meet the needs of partnering with local education agencies.

Rating Methodology:

Provided guidance and funding in the last five years for districts and/or preparation programs to set goals and invest in strategies to increase the racial diversity of the workforce
Provided guidance to districts and/or preparation programs in the last five years for setting goals and investing in strategies to increase the racial diversity of the workforce, but does not provide funding
No guidance or funding for districts and/or preparation programs to set goals and invest in strategies to increase the racial diversity of the workforce
Criteria
SHOWS IMPROVEMENT
Develop a task force, advisory group, or role within the state education agency with access to leadership to examine, create, and monitor strategies to increase the racial diversity of the educator workforce
State Actions

California, under the direction of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Tony Thurmond, established the California Department of Education (CDE) Educator Diversity Advisory Group in 2021. Led by Dr. Travis Bristol from UC Berkeley, the group provided recommendations to SSPI Thurmond on how the CDE can recruit, support, and retain teachers of color across the state. Members of the advisory group held four virtual convenings with education stakeholders, county leaders, district leaders, site leaders, and teachers of color to document how practitioners were supporting and retaining an ethno-racially diverse educator workforce, barriers faced to deepening the educator diversity workforce, and policy levers aimed at bolstering teacher diversity efforts. A series of webinars was held highlighting the recommendations from the report, which will be published in a report in 2022.

Therefore, the state earned a green in this category. For another example of a state that earned a green, see Ohio’s Diversifying the Education Profession in Ohio Taskforce brief from fall 2018.

Rating Methodology:

Publicly shared information about a task force or advisory group that created a report or brief that includes data and recommendations to increase the racial diversity of the workforce at the state-level
Publicly announced the formation of a group to examine or support educator diversity efforts at the state-level with no evidence of products that include data, recommendations, or state-level actions to address the racial diversity of the workforce
No publicly announced group to examine educator diversity
MEETS SOME OF THE REQUIREMENTS

3: Invest in educator preparation programs to increase enrollment and improve the preparation of teachers of color

States must invest in multiple inputs toward building an educator pipeline to increase the racial diversity of the workforce, starting with the preparation of educators of color. The state must create opportunities for educators of color to enroll and succeed in preparation programs and limit unnecessary barriers to the profession.

To support the preparation of teachers of color, the state must:

Criteria
MEETS SOME OF THE REQUIREMENTS
Invest in scholarship and loan forgiveness programs to attract students of color into preparation programs and the teaching profession
State Actions

California has a teacher grant program to help fill positions in priority schools and high-need subject areas.

However, the state should invest in scholarships and/or loan forgiveness programs that target students of color. For an example, see Florida’s Minority Teacher Education Scholars Program.

Rating Methodology:

Investment in scholarship and/or loan forgiveness programs with the focus of attracting candidates of color and diversifying the educator workforce
Investment in scholarship and/or loan forgiveness programs that help attract all candidates to the profession but does not prioritize candidates of color
No investment in scholarship and loan forgiveness programs to recruit future candidates
Criteria
MEETS ONE OR NO REQUIREMENTS
Adopt rigorous program approval standards to compel teacher preparation programs to recruit and graduate candidates of color
State Actions

California does not have any program approval standards that compel programs to recruit and graduate candidates of color.

Therefore, the state earned a red in this category. The state should adopt a program approval standard that requires preparation programs to show evidence of plans and efforts to recruit and support a more racially diverse candidate pool in their programs. For an example, see Alabama’s program approval standards.

Rating Methodology:

Program approval standard requires programs to report plans or efforts to recruit and/or support candidates of color
Programs are required to share data on specific outcomes related to graduating and enrolling candidates of color but no requirement to share plans or efforts to intentionally recruit or graduate candidates of color
No mention of recruiting or graduating candidates of color from preparation programs
Criteria
SHOWS IMPROVEMENT
Interrogate licensure policies for racial bias and adopt licensure policies that increase diversity while maintaining quality and rigor
State Actions

California created additional ways for educator candidates to demonstrate both their proficiency in Basic Skills and their Subject Matter Competence through alternatives to high-stakes standardized exams. For Basic Skills, candidates can now demonstrate competence through coursework: For reading proficiency: a course in critical thinking, literature, philosophy, reading, rhetoric, or textual analysis. For writing proficiency: a course in composition, English, rhetoric, written communication, or writing. For mathematics proficiency: a course in algebra, geometry, mathematics, quantitative reasoning, or statistics. For Subject Matter Competence, teacher candidates can demonstrate their proficiency through either a major in the area of the credential (license) or through a coursework analysis that confirms that all domains of the appropriate Subject Matter Requirements have been covered.

In addition, the state legislature has approved the development of a performance assessment to replace the current Reading Instruction Competence Assessment (RICA) exam, which will be operational in 2025. The Commission on Teacher Credentialing has a standing Bias Review Committee that reviews all exams and performance assessment items and materials before and during implementation. Plus, the Commission is developing a one-hour implicit bias training for all calibrated assessors of the Commission-sponsored performance assessments — the CalTPA for teachers and CalAPA for administrators.

Therefore, the state earned a green in this category.

Rating Methodology:

Took concrete actions to change licensure policies to increase diversity, including eliminating assessments or other burdensome licensure requirements that disproportionally affect candidates of color
Stated the priority to interrogate licensure policies and took one or more the following actions: 1) Statutory mandates to report and continuously monitor trends on passage rates and how policies impact candidates of color; 2) Convened a set of practitioners to interrogate licensure policies for ethno-racial bias and issued recommendations for state action to remedy bias
No efforts to interrogate licensure policies for racial bias or adopt licensure policies that increase diversity while maintaining quality and rigor
Criteria
MEETS SOME OF THE REQUIREMENTS
Invest in preparation programs that prepare a high number of teachers of color, including minority serving institutions
State Actions
California encourages partnerships with MSIs to build a diverse pipeline. However, the state should invest in supports and incentives for programs that prepare a high number of teachers of color, including MSIs, to grow their efforts to recruit and graduate more teachers of color. For an example, see Virginia’s increased investment in local historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) that prepare teachers of color to work in STEM fields.

Rating Methodology:

Investment in minority serving institutions or programs that recruit and support candidates of color through grants or other funding sources dedicated to replicating and expanding their success in attracting and preparing candidates of color and diversifying the educator workforce
Guidance or recommendation to recruit from or develop partnerships with minority serving institutions
No intentional investment in MSIs or programs that prepare a disproportionate number of candidates of color
MEETS ALL OR MOST OF THE REQUIREMENTS

4: Target resources to districts and schools to support efforts to intentionally recruit and hire a diverse teaching workforce

Many districts and schools across the country struggle to recruit and hire a more diverse teaching workforce using traditional methods. States play an important role in targeting resources toward these districts and schools to help develop initiatives that increase the racial diversity of the workforce.

Research-based strategies that states should take to target resources toward these districts and schools include:

Criteria
MEETS ALL OR MOST OF THE REQUIREMENTS
Providing funding, guidance, and public support for Grow Your Own (GYO) programs that attract candidates of color
State Actions

California invested in the California Classified School Employee Teacher Credentialing Program for adults who work in schools to receive grants that enable them to complete their undergraduate education and prepare to become a teacher. In July 2021, the state appropriated $125 million to expand the program for another five years. Additionally, the California Center on Teaching Careers is an extension of the Credentialing Grant Program that supports classified staff to pursue their teaching degrees.

Therefore, the state earned a green in this category. For another example of a state that earned a green, see Texas’ Grow Your Own grant program.

Rating Methodology:

Includes developing and expanding GYO programming as a priority through a change to state education agency or state-level legislation, funds GYO programming from the state level, and provides state-led guidance on developing GYO programming
Positive policy conditions to encourage districts/preparation programs to develop GYO programming (e.g., providing scholarships or stipends to paraprofessionals to complete licensure requirements to become teachers); or provides guidance or encouragement through their SEA website to create GYO programs
No state support for GYO programs
Criteria
SHOWS IMPROVEMENT
Investing in and providing guidance on cultural competence and anti-bias trainings and resources for hiring managers
State Actions

California invested in consulting services with Inclusion Alchemy, which provided two reports that comprise an initial climate survey and recommendations for the state to move the internal DEI work forward. Led by Sabrina Coleman, Inclusion Alchemy also administered the training, “Bridging Across Differences” to all CDE managers to address specific needs. In addition, CDE formed an Equity Task Force to move DEI work forward internally, which included training with Dr. Portia Hunt & Dr. Mike Likier.

Therefore, the state earned a green in this category.

Rating Methodology:

Provides professional develop and training on cultural competence and/or anti-bias practices for hiring managers at the state level to increase the racial diversity of the workforce
Provides resources for hiring managers at the state and district level to help increase the racial diversity of the workforce
No evidence of investment in resources or trainings on cultural competence and/or anti-bias practices for hiring managers at the state level to increase the racial diversity of the workforce
Criteria
MEETS ALL OR MOST OF THE REQUIREMENTS
Investment in teacher academies and dualenrollment programming to promote the teaching profession to a racially diverse group of students
State Actions

California invests in the California Partnership Academies to provide CTE to high school students interested in teaching or careers in education.

Therefore, the state earned a green in this category. For another example of a state that earned a green, see Oregon’s Minority Educator Pipeline Models Grant, which provides funds to school districts and postsecondary institutions to create collaborative processes, including a high school cadet program to recruit future educators who are culturally and linguistically diverse.

Rating Methodology:

Investment in teacher academies and dual-enrollment programming with the focus on attracting candidates of color and diversifying the educator workforce
Investment in teacher academies and/or dual-enrollment programming that help all candidates to the profession but does not prioritize candidates of color
No investment in teacher academies and dual-enrollment programming to recruit future candidates
Criteria
MEETS ALL OR MOST OF THE REQUIREMENTS
Investing in partnerships between districts and teacher preparation programs, particularly programs with a diverse candidate population, to ensure targeted hiring
State Actions

California invested in articulation agreement programs between teacher prep programs and community colleges to prepare candidates pursuing paraprofessional credentials. The California state budget, signed by the Governor in July 2021, also includes a total of $350 million to fund competitive grants that support a collaborative partnership between an eligible local education agency (LEA) or a consortium of LEAs partnering with one or more Commission-approved teacher preparation programs offered by a regionally accredited institution of higher education (IHE) to expand, strengthen, improve access to, or create teacher residency programs.

Therefore, the state earned a green in this category. For another example of a state that earned a green, see New York’s Teacher Diversity Pipeline Pilot program that funds partnerships between districts, preparation programs, and other entities to assist teacher aides and teaching assistants in obtaining teacher certifications.

Rating Methodology:

Investment in partnerships between districts and teacher preparation programs, particularly minority-serving institutions, with the focus of attracting candidates of color and diversify the educator workforce
Investment in partnerships between districts and teacher preparation programs that help attract all candidates to the profession but does not prioritize candidates of color
No investment in partnerships between districts and teacher preparation programs to recruit future candidates
Criteria
MEETS SOME OF THE REQUIREMENTS
Investing in diversifying the educator workforce in areas that influence hiring and recruitment decisions, including the education leaders at teacher preparation programs, district leadership, and school leadership
State Actions

California has an Educator Preparation Program standard for programs to document efforts to recruit and hire a more diverse faculty.

However, California should also invest in diversifying the educator workforce in areas that influence hiring and recruitment decisions, including district leadership and school leadership. For an example, see Massachusetts’ investment in diversifying the superintendent pipeline.

Rating Methodology:

Investment in programming that increases the diversity in faculty in teacher preparation programs, district leadership, school leadership, or other areas that influence hiring and recruitment decisions
Yellow: Commitment to the diversity of the educator workforce in areas that influence hiring and recruitment decisions including requiring programs and districts to report on efforts to increase the diversity of their workforces in these areas
No evidence of programming or support in this space
SHOWS IMPROVEMENT

5: Invest in efforts to retain teachers of color including improving working conditions and providing opportunities for personal and professional growth for teachers of color

While many states have invested heavily in efforts to recruit teachers of color, these efforts are compromised when districts and schools have difficulty retaining teachers of color. States can improve retention of teachers of color by investing in programming that provides ongoing support and growth opportunities and improves poor working conditions that disproportionately affect teachers of color.

Strategies that states should take to retain teachers of color include:

Criteria
MEETS ALL OR MOST OF THE REQUIREMENTS
Investing in high-retention pathways to teaching, including residency models and alternative certification programs that traditionally support and develop teachers of color
State Actions

California increased its funding of the Teacher Residency Grant Program in 2021 to $350 million to provide one-time competitive grants for applicants to develop new or expand existing residency programs that recruit and support the preparation of special education, bilingual education, science, technology, engineering, or mathematics teachers.

The state earned a green and is rated as a best practice in this category.

Rating Methodology:

State investment in residency programming including financial investment in programs at the preparation level; investment in alternative certification programming to recruit and support teachers of color
Flexible licensure requirements that provide the opportunity for alternative certification programs to recruit and prepare candidates of color or candidates from non-traditional pathways; guidance for running residency programs; and/or public support for residency programs locally
No investment or policy support for residency programming or alternative certification programming
Criteria
SHOWS IMPROVEMENT
Investing in opportunities for teachers of color to grow and develop in their abilities and their qualification for leadership roles, including targeted professional development, cohort models, and continuing education opportunities
State Actions

California provides professional learning opportunities in administrator training, among other areas for professional growth; State-led induction program provides mentorship for new teachers. In addition, California’s 2021 budget included $1.5 billion for the Educator Effectiveness Funds that can be used for professional learning over the next five years. The state also provided affinity spaces for leaders of color through the 21st Century School Leadership Academy to create safe spaces where open dialogue, relational understanding of daily experiences, and empowerment can occur for leaders.

Therefore, the state earned a green in this category. For another example of a state that earned a green, see Massachusetts’ investment in diversifying the superintendent pipeline.

Rating Methodology:

Professional development opportunities for teachers of color to grow leadership abilities and investing in pathways to leadership opportunities for teachers of color
Teacher leadership opportunities and/or opportunities to develop leadership qualities for all teachers but none that target or prioritize teachers of color
No targeted leadership development opportunities
Criteria
MEETS ALL OR MOST OF THE REQUIREMENTS
Investing in induction and mentoring programs that provide support to teachers of color early in their careers
State Actions

California provides a two-year induction and mentoring program for new teachers.

Therefore, the state earned a green in this category.For another example of a state that earned a green, see Minnesota’s $6 million investment in 2022 and 2023 for districts to develop mentorship programs that prioritize teachers of color.

Rating Methodology:

Professional development opportunities for teachers of color to grow leadership abilities and investing in pathways to leadership opportunities for teachers of color
Teacher leadership opportunities and/or opportunities to develop leadership qualities for all teachers but none that target or prioritize teachers of color
No targeted leadership development opportunities
Criteria
SHOWS IMPROVEMENT
Investing in and providing guidance on cultural competence and anti-bias professional learning opportunities for school and district leaders
State Actions

California’s 2021 Educator Effectiveness Grant funds, which were distributed to LEAs, included cultural competence and anti-bias professional learning as allowable expenses. Additionally, CDE will partner with implicit bias and racial justice experts to develop resources and guidance for schools to infuse implicit bias training into existing professional development.

Therefore, the state earned a green in this category.

Rating Methodology:

State-led professional learning sessions for district and school leaders
Guidance on ways to ensure cultural competence for district and school leaders
No evidence of programming or support in this space

6: Use federal COVID-related relief funds to invest in strategies to increase the racial diversity of the educator workforce

Through the American Rescue Plan (ARP), the federal government has invested $190 billion to support state and local efforts to provide high-quality instruction during the COVID-19 pandemic. Some of this money can — and should — be utilized to fund efforts to increase the racial diversity of the educator workforce through short- and long-term solutions. Each state submitted an ARP plan to invest funding to address several issues, including building strong and diverse workforces, and many states have used ESSER funds and other federal sources to invest in strategies to increase the diversity of the workforce. The information below represents the state’s effort to invest in teacher diversity strategies since March 2021:

State Actions Investments to Date
State ARP Plan:
California used ARP funding to establish new pathways for prospective teachers to establish basic skills and subject matter competency through coursework and upgrades to existing examinations.
In the California state ARP plan, the SEA wrote that it has used state funds for a number of programs and initiatives aimed at increasing diversity in the teacher workforce, including teacher residency and Grow Your Own preparation programs, credential fee waivers, new pathways for prospective teachers to establish basic skills and subject matter competency through coursework and upgrades to existing examinations, and the Classified School Employee Teacher Credentialing Program, which supports classified school staff in becoming credentialed teachers.

Other Federal Investments to Note

TAPPING INTO THE AFTER-SCHOOL PIPELINE

One underutilized strategy for increasing the racial diversity of the teacher workforce is to recruit and prepare those who have experience working in after-school or out-of-school time (OST) programs to enter the teaching profession. State policymakers can adopt policies to build this potentially high-leverage pipeline of teachers of color into the profession. To do so effectively, they must not only increase targeted recruitment of after-school/OST staff but also structure programming to draw upon this group’s experiences while they’re enrolled in preparation programs.

Here are three ways to build an after-school pipeline:

1. Allocate resources to establish and strengthen recruitment relationships between nontraditional teacher preparation programs and after-school/OST service providers.

State Actions:

MEETS ALL OR MOST OF THE REQUIREMENTS

Provide funding, guidance, and support for Grow Your Own (GYO) programs, which traditionally attract candidates of color

California invested in the California Classified School Employee Teacher Credentialing Program for adults who work in schools to receive grants to enable them to complete their undergraduate education and prepare to become a teacher. In July 2021, the state appropriated $125 million to expand the program for another five years. Additionally, the California Center on Teaching Careers is an extension of the Credentialing Grant Program that supports classified staff to pursue their teaching degrees.

MEETS ALL OR MOST OF THE REQUIREMENTS

Investment in partnerships between districts and teacher preparation programs, particularly minority-serving institutions, to ensure targeted hiring

California invested in articulation agreement programs between teacher prep programs and community colleges to prepare candidates pursuing paraprofessional credentials. The 2021 state budget also includes $350 million in funding for competitive grants to support a collaborative partnership between an eligible local education agency (LEA) or a consortium of LEAs partnering with one or more Commission-approved teacher preparation programs offered by a regionally accredited institution of higher education (IHE) to expand, strengthen, improve access to, or create teacher residency programs.

2. Increase investments in scholarships, loan forgiveness opportunities, and tuition reimbursements for teacher candidates with after-school/OST experience, with a particular focus on candidates of color and participants in GYO programs.

State Actions:

MEETS SOME OF THE REQUIREMENTS

Investment in scholarship and loan forgiveness programs to attract students of color into teacher preparation programs

California has a teacher grant program to help fill positions in priority schools and high need subject areas

3. Adopt statewide guidelines and invest in supports for nontraditional teacher preparation pathways that include teacher licensure test preparation, and at least one year of mentor teacher support and coaching before participants enter the classroom as teachers of record

State Actions:

MEETS ONE OR NO REQUIREMENTS

Adopted rigorous program approval standards for teacher preparation programs to recruit and graduate candidates

California does not have any program approval standards that compel programs to recruit and graduate candidates of color